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AReviewOfEducationalWorkInFormosa

A Review of Educational Work in Formosa

Compiled by the Department of Educational Affairs of the Government-General of Formosa, Japan. 1916

Chapter VI.

The Middle Schools and the Girls' High School of Japanese.

MIDDLE SCHOOL EDUCATION IN GENERAL.

[62] The Middle School education for the Japanese in Formosa began with the opening of the Middle School Course in the Fourth Attached School in April, 1898. This Fourth School was changed into the Second Attached School in a few months but the Middle School Course remained in it as before till July, 1902, when the Middle School Department, as it was called, was transferred to the Language School and formed the Middle School Department in it, while the Second Attached School itself was discontinued at the same time.

In May, 1907, the Middle School Department was organized as a separate institution from the Language School and was put under the direct control of the Government-General. The Girls' High School Course which formed a Department in the Third Attached School was put under the management of the Director of the Middle School. In March, 1908, the regulations relating to the First Department of the Middle School were promulgated and in April the first class of 30 boys were admitted into this Department. Thus in 1908 the Middle School had three Depart- ments under one Director, namely, The Girls' High School, The First Department and the Second Department. The last mentioned Department is the ordinary Middle School, the same as in Japan and its origin was ten years earlier than that of the First Department.

[63] In 1909, the Girls' High School was separated from the Middle School. In the same year, the new buildings of the Middle School were completed and the School with the two Departments was moved to the present site at Ryo-ko-ko-sho, Taihoku.

In May, 1914, the Government started the Tainan Middle School in the Southern part of Formosa and the name of the older Middle School was changed from "the Middle School" into "The Taihoku Middle School." At present there are two Middle Schools for the Japanese and each school has its own director who manages the school affairs and has control over the school officials with the approval of the Governor-General. The two schools have in common nine teachers of So-nin rank and thirty- three teachers of Han-nin rank. The student-superintendent is appointed from among the teachers of the school. He takes charge of the discipline of the boys under the Director. The clerk engages in the management of miscellaneous affairs of the school and keeps account of the same with the approval of the Director.

The aim and purpose of the Middle School is to give higher general education to the Japanese boys in Formosa. The First Department of the Middle School belonging only to the Taihou Middle School, the Tainan Middle School having the Second Department only.

(II) THE TAIHOKU MIDDLE SCHOOL.

The Taihoku Middle School, as has already been said, has the two Departments: The First and the Second Departments. The former is a new experiment and is unique in Japan. It has, to start with, a six years course instead of the five years course of the ordinary middle school. A post-graduate course may be [64] added to it for those who wish to continue and complete their education along the lines aimed at in the Department. Japanese boys of eleven years of age may be admitted if they have finished the fifth year grade of the elementary school or if they can pass the entrance examinations.

The subjects taught are: Civics, Japanese, the Chinese Classics, English, History, Geography, Natural Science, Physics and Chemistry, Japanese Institution and Political Economy, Manual Training and Out-door Gardening, Drawing and Painting, Singing, Gymnastics and Drill.

The subjects to be taught in the post-graduate Course are: Foreign Languages, Law, Economics and some other subjects useful in daily life.

The boys of this Department live in two Dormitories each of which has a lady Matron who has had experience in educa- tional work. The Matrons co-operate with the Heads of the Dormitories in the moral and social training of the boys.

A scholarship of five yen (10 shillings a month may be given to the boy of exemplary character with proficiency in school work. Besides this, there is a Foundation endowment provided by Baron Goto and the Late General Count Sakuma, the originators and the benefactors of the Institution. This fund may be given to a boy in consideration of his merit and the circumstances of his home.

The characteristics of the First Department maybe pointed out as two, namely: (1) the smallness of the classes and (2) the well balanced training of mind and body. One class in the First Department generally consists of less than thirty boys, while more than fifty are generally taken into a class in the ordinary Middle School. In a small class of less than thirty boys who are [65] living in a Dormitory, the teachers can discern the characteristics of each boy and attend to each idiosyncrasy much better than in a large class. Quality is more emphasized in the First Depart- ment than in the Ordinary Middle School where quantity is very important because the diffusion of higher general education is aimed at. Again, the ordinary Middle school being somewhat a preparatory school to higher schools is apt to put more stress on intellectual education even at the expense of moral and physical education. The First Department boys all live in Dormitories and are well looked after by the Matron as well as by the student-superintendents. They have the benefit of getting physical, intellectual, and more training outside of the class-rooms which is very important to the development of growing boys.

The Second Department is an ordinary Middle School and conforms in very point to the Middle School Ordinances issued by the Imperial Education Department of Japan. The school is five years. Boys above 12 years of age may be admitted to the School if they are graduates of an elementary school or if they can pass the regular entrance examinations. The Post- graduate Course of one year called "Supplementary Course" may be added to this Department.

The subjects taught are: Morals, Japanese, the Chinese Classics, English, History, Geography, Mathematics, Natural Science, Physics and Chemistry, Japanese Institutions and Political Economy, Drawing and Painting, Singing, Gymnastics and Drill, Industrial Training, (either Agriculture, Commerce or Manual Training). This last mentioned is optional. The subjects to be taught in the Supplementary Course may be selected by the Director from among the subjects taught in the Middle School Course Proper. The grade of each subject, the number of hours [66] per week, the admission, the registration, the absences and leaving as well as the discipline of the boys in the Second Department are regulated by the Imperial Educational Department Regulations unless otherwise provided for in the Formosan Middle School Regulations of 1914. The students and the graduates of the Formosan Middle Schools enjoy the same privileges that those of the Middle schools in Japan enjoy in entering a higher school or in transferring to some other Middle School. Only the first year class boys in the First Department are denied these privileges as they enter school one year earlier than allowed in the regular middle schools.

The Taihoku Middle School had at the end of April 1914, 9 teachers of So-nin rank, 22 teachers of Han-nin rank and 8 Instructors besides 3 foreign teachers under one Director of So-nin rank. The First Department had 6 classes with 139 boys while the Second Department had 15 classes with 623 boys. Only 27 boys were in the Supplementary Course. Thus the school had 789 boys in all. In 1915, 31 boys were admitted to the First Department, while 175 to the Second Department. In 1914, there were 17 graduated from the First Department while the second Department graduated 58.

The following table shows the statistics of the school for the last five years:

Kinds,Years19111912191319141915
Teachers So-nin Rank1010999
Teachers Han-nin Rank1821232222
Instructors109888
Foreigners33333
Total4143434242
Classes 1st Department45666
Classes 2nd Department1414151515
Total1819212121
Number of Students 1st Department84112130129139
Number of Students 2nd Department458471493550650
Total542583623679789
Boys admitted 1st Department2836303531
Boys admitted 2nd Department144155178210175
Total172191208245206
The graduates 1st Department--1617-
The graduates 2nd Department52556458-
Total52558075-
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